Recessed Kitchen Lighting Reconsidered

Evidence-based design brings kitchen lighting out of the shadows

May 10, 2017

What's wrong with this kitchen lighting scheme? Can lights located in aisles cast shadow on tasks when the cook stands at the counter. Under-cabinet lights mounted against the wall cause glare. There are too few fixtures to light an island of this size. Read on for solutions that will bring better lighting to your kitchen designs.

Most kitchens are woefully underlit. Lighting is often an afterthought, yet even when it’s carefully planned, designers and lighting experts often don’t agree on which lamps work best in particular fixtures and where those fixtures should be located.

In what follows, I’ll look at factors such as the number of fixtures and the type of lamps (bulbs) used, but I’m particularly interested in the size and location of recessed can lights for best practices for lighting in the kitchen. I’ve written about this before (see “The Right Way to Light a Kitchen"), but I recently measured comparative light levels on actual jobsites, and the data backs up my contention that, in most cases, the wrong fixtures are being placed in the wrong locations.

Here are some considerations for kitchen lighting layout.

How Much Light Is Enough?

There has been almost no new research on this topic for the last 30 years, and competing expert opinions leave designers confused about how much light is needed in the kitchen. The code isn’t much help: IRC 2015 requires just one light fixture for the entire kitchen, yielding perhaps 6 foot-candles (fc). That will help you avoid banging your hip on the corner of the island countertop, but it’s very dim light for working in the kitchen.

kitchen lighting layout tutorial Industry groups also weigh in on the topic. In the book Kitchen & Bath Lighting: Concepts, Design, Light, which the National Kitchen & Bath Association (NKBA) released in 2015, the text suggests 50 fc for prep counters. This jibes with the January 2017 update of the Illuminating Engineering Society’s (IES) “Lighting and the Visual Environment for Seniors and the Low Vision Population” (ANSI/IES RP-28-16), which also recommends a minimum of 50 fc at the countertop surface.

My personal target is a 100 fc minimum, and even more for clients older than 60 (see “Aging Eyes Need More Light,” below). But I also put everything on dimmers, which enables users to soften the lighting while also saving energy and extending lamp life in halogens and LEDs.

Ideal Location for Recessed Canned Lights in the Kitchen

I believe there’s considerable misinformation about where canned lights in the kitchen should be located in relation to countertops. In a couple of books used by kitchen designers, I’ve seen illustrations showing recessed can placement well away from the task. The illustrations don’t include dimensions, but out of curiosity I traced and enlarged them, then scaled them using the 25-inch countertop as a guide. In doing so, I found that one illustration shows the cans 49 inches out from the wall and another shows the cans a whopping 56 inches out. 

This spec seems to have originated in a kitchen lighting book that was popular in the ’90s. The book’s theory was that lights centered in walkways wouldn’t create “hot spots” on the upper cabinets and that under-cabinet lights would do the heavy lifting (see “Under-Cabinet Lights Won’t Save You,” below). 

I bought that book, but the advice in there to center the cans in the aisles made no sense to me, and I stopped following its guidelines after one or two projects. But it has bothered me that this bad advice is still being disseminated. Then, a few years ago, I met with a prospective client who complained of really bad lighting in his newly redone kitchen. This launched me on the path of putting numbers to good and bad lighting. Now I measure, before and after, every kitchen I’m asked to redesign. You can’t manage what you don’t measure.

My opinion, based on common sense—and now also on empirical evidence—is that the proper place for canned lights iin the kitchen ntended for task lighting is directly over the edge of the countertop, which is roughly 24 inches out from the wall. This location puts the beam right above the work surface and, equally important, it prevents the cook’s body from blocking the light when he or she stands at the counter working. It also throws light directly into open drawers.

Recessed lighting installation

Placing and Testing Fixtures in the Kitchen

To test my theory, I first purchased one 4-inch and one 5-inch recessed can and a variety of lamps. I then enlisted the help of current client Mike Flaherty, who is having a second-floor addition built at his 1920s bungalow, along with associated first-floor upgrades. 

Part of the under-construction kitchen ceiling was open, which made it possible—one evening after dark—for us to hold the can lights up at the proper height (5 feet above the counter) and at a variety of distances from the wall, starting at 24 inches and going out to 48 inches. I stood on a stepladder while Mike stood by the counter or in front of it (photos, above) and recorded the measurements from my trusty Meterman LM631 light meter.

Could there be errors? Sure. For instance, I have two light meters, plus a light meter app on my Android phone, and each gives different readings. But I do trust the accuracy of the relative values from a single meter.

Test Results

The results confirm that the location of a can light makes a big difference, especially when, as happens in the real world, people stand at their counters while they prep and cook (see the “Recessed Light Location Test Results” table, below). 

For example, with a PAR30 flood in a 5-inch can located 24 inches from the wall, I measured 42.8 fc at the work surface. When the can was moved out to 36 and then 42 inches from the wall, I measured 27 fc and 13.1 fc, respectively—drops of 37 percent and 70 percent.

The reduction in light levels was more dramatic when Mike stood at the counter as if prepping (see “Actual Field Measurements,” below). With the can 36 inches from the wall, the 27 fc dropped to just 1.4 fc; at 42 inches out, the 13.1 fc plummeted to 0.6 fc—worse than candlelight! And with a 4-inch can, all of the results were about 30 percent lower.

kitchen lighting actual field measurements illustration with recessed lighting

recessed lighting results from testRecessed lighting can results from test

Takeaways From the Experiment

Placing cans in the walkways puts task lighting on the floor and spills ambient light onto the counter—it’s completely backward. Recessed cans are particularly inefficient for ambient lighting; better are surface-mounted or pendant fixtures that throw light in all directions.

The bottom line: For task lighting, cans should be placed 24 inches out from the wall, centered over the edge of the countertop. 

Admittedly, these test results are for a single recessed fixture and lamp in a dark kitchen under construction. There is no cumulative effect of side-by-side fixtures, as would be the case in most kitchens. Nonetheless, these foot-candle measurements were dramatic. Here’s what I think we can learn from them:

  • Lamp type affects the amount of light delivered. A PAR lamp delivers two to 10 times more light on the task than a BR lamp with the same lumen output. My advice is to use BRs only for ambient lighting where you want a wide, diffuse spread, such as in family rooms or hallways. (Read more about lamp types here.)
  • The narrower the beam spread, the stronger the light levels on the task. In a fixture 5 feet above the countertop, a PAR30 with a 40-degree beam spread creates a circle of light about 100 inches in diameter; a narrow spot with a 10 degree beam spread creates a circle of light that’s about 22 inches in diameter. It follows that beam spread affects the number of fixtures needed and their spacing: If you use narrow-spread lamps, you will need more fixtures spaced more closely together to achieve the same light levels.
  • Larger can diameters deliver more light. This seems self-evident. However, I was surprised to find that the most intense narrow spot (NSP) in a 4-inch can didn’t have the punch to deliver the recommended minimum 50 fc from 5 feet above the countertop; I was also surprised that the narrow flood (NFL) did, delivering 79 fc. Again, lamp type matters.

Recommendation

After seeing these results, I will continue my practice of placing canned lights in the kitchen directly above the edges of work counters. In a future article, I’ll share several recent projects showing light levels before we started, computer simulations of the new lighting layout, and actual measurements after the work was completed. 

I’ll also continue to use my go-to fixture and lamp—a 5-inch, airtight, IC-rated can with a 75-watt equivalent PAR30 NFL LED lamp. By itself, this spec puts down 117 fc on the countertop, and in concert with cans on either side (usually 3 or 4 feet apart) you can reach even higher light levels. You can also generate 100 fc with a single 5-inch can using an NSP lamp (9-degree beam), but you won’t find that bulb at your local big-box store.

I use IC-rated cans everywhere, whether or not the ceiling is insulated, because if air can get through, then sound can, too. It also simplifies the fixture order.

What’s Next?

When Mike’s kitchen is complete, I’ll redo the foot-candle measurements with all of his kitchen lights on to see the cumulative effect. I’d also like to measure a 6-inch can with a PAR38 flood and spot to see how each performs in 10-foot ceilings. In addition, I want to measure output from an LED retrofit kit and from a low-voltage MR16 fixture with different lamps and beam spreads.

All of this data will help us to better understand how the different “layers” of lighting combine to create a successful project. As Sara Sullivan, a lighting designer with 186 Lighting Design Group, has said, “Each layer has a purpose in the kitchen: general ambient lighting, task lighting, and decorative lighting. There is no one answer that can truly be applied to every space or client; you need to revisit your ‘toolbox’ every time to create that perfect composition.”


Aging Eyes Need More Light

Vision problems accompany aging, and for older people, poor lighting is a very real safety issue. Expert opinions differ on how much more light is necessary as people age, but there is clear consensus that more light is better.

Phil Richards, a lighting educator with Juno Lighting Group, in the Chicago area, recommends a foot-candle light level in the kitchen that is “your age plus 20.” Naomi Miller, senior lighting engineer at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, recommends 50 to 100 foot-candles (fc) on the task. Steve Brielmaier, in a January 2017 article titled “25 Lighting Tips for Seniors” for LampsUSA, features a chart based on age groups and recommends 75 fc for 40-year-olds, 150 fc for 60-year-olds, and a whopping 225 fc for 80-year-olds. (Find out more about various vision aspects of universal design here.)


Under-Cabinet Lights Won't Save You

Under-cabinet lights are wonderful, but at kitchen sinks in front of windows, there are no upper cabinets to mount them to. The same goes for islands and modern loft-style kitchens, which use mostly base cabinets.

Light from under-cabinet fixtures mounted against the wall can reflect off polished countertop surfaces and cause distracting glare. Mounting the fixtures at the front of the cabinet reduces this problem and provides a bit more light to the work surface. 

Undercabinet lightsThe other problem with under-cabinet lights is getting homeowners to use them. This is true for many of my clients, and I attribute it to their experience with the hot halogen or xenon fixtures that were popular the last time they remodeled their kitchen—you could keep pizza warm under those lamps. But LEDs have changed the game, and they come in different output levels, plus they’re dimmable. 

One huge advantage under-cabinet lights have is that they’re below the viewer’s eye level (except when seated) and are less likely to cause glare. The exception is when the counters are highly polished—which the great majority of countertops are—then the reflection bounces right up into your eyes. Honed or matte countertops help, but the real solution is to mount under-cabinet lights behind the front rail of the upper cabinets instead of at the back against the wall. This location changes the angles of incidence and reflection and may prevent the glare. It also helps to deliver foot-candles on the working area, which is toward the front of the counter, not the back.

About the Author


About the Author


Doug Walter, of Doug Walter Architects, in Denver, has specialized in residential remodeling for 25 years. He has a long history with Universal Design and aging in place. He helped write the NAHB’s Certified Aging-in-Place Specialist curriculum and holds an ICC Certificate as an Accessibility Inspector.

Comments

Comments

Jeremy: thanks for writing in, I appreciate you trying to do the right thing. Which is to NOT use thin LED disc lights. They look like cans but they sure don't perform like cans. All the ones I've found have wide, wide beam spread, which means most of their 700-900 lumens is all dissipated up near the ceiling and very little makes it down to the counters, certainly NOT the 50 foot candles NKBA and IES recommend. They are far cheaper and far easier to install, that's why electricians like them. But not for a kitchen, please. For closets, walk in pantries, utility areas, fine. For an 8 foot ceiling, I'd use either 4inch or 5 inch cans with PAR lamps (bulbs) in a narrow flood.

The other thing that is wasting energy is the grid layout of lights in a row. You don't need to light the floor in between counters and table; there will be enough ambient light and bounce light to illuminate the walkways. If you get nervous about that, add one or two , not 5 or 6 like you have shown on your plan. Plan your lighting to serve the work surfaces (and appliances, pantry cabinets etc) and leave the rest of the ceiling blank.

And the table looks like it's getting almost not light, and yet that's where you'll spend most of your time as a family. A decorative hanging fixture maybe? Or two adjustable cans aimed on the top? Kudos for putting your can over the sink in the center of the fixture. And do you have undercabinet lights? If you want to prove all this to yourself and your electrician; go buy one of each fixture, wire it up to a plug, and hold it up over the counters, measuring the output AT THE COUNTERTOP with a light meter or free light meter app on your phone. GOOD LUCK!!

Hello! The amount of information here, and in the comments, is finally what we've been looking for! It's taking us way too long to get to here. We all appreciate your work and your long long feedback here in the comments! So, I'll try to keep it brief.

We have a large collection of those 6" large LED disk types that you mentioned aren't very good at 800-ish lumens (says 850 on the box). We got them as part of a contractor's dump at a very cheap cost - and since they are big-box branch, replacement versions seem easy to come by. I know the flat versions you are talking about that spread the light all along the ceiling - those are not these though. I know the ones you are talking about as we installed them in the laundry and mudrooms, as well as some closets.

These we want to install in the kitchen/dining are 6" and have about a 1" to 1.5" recess up into the trim ring, making them a a good bit more focused than those flat-against-the-ceiling LED brands. But still, yes, only 850-ish lumens. We connected a few and they are very very bright. And, we can change the color temps on the fly.

Next, please be aware this is a retrofit from a dining room and kitchen with only a single fan and single hanging light fixture, with some existing (dated) track lighting over the sink - all of which are seriously lacking light. There are no existing cans, and no real access to install cans. Hence, the simple LED canless-style we've gone with.

With that said, take a look at the two proposed layouts we're having trouble deciding on:

Option 1: Unevenly spaced but more light coverage - https://i.imgur.com/rjRQnGN.png

Option 2: Evenly spaced but possible dark areas - https://i.imgur.com/KOdie5a.png

A few definitions:

* All grids is exactly 1 foot. The grey vertical bars are our rafter locations spaced at 24" OC.
* Light colors (red, green, blue) are the 2-way and dimmer lighting circuits I am adding to control zones differently. We want to break-up the kitchen lighting.
* The dual-oven wall cabinet (plus microwave) is 90" tall - no upper spacing to ceiling. The single cabinet next to the wall oven is 40" tall. And the single cabinet next to the frig is 30", plus a 15" ontop so no space above it. They are also all glass fronts and glass shelves, which the LED lighting can easily reach into (we hope).
* Baker's Pantry area is a wall full of cabinets from floor to ceiling. The 24" base give away to 6" of counter-top space before hitting the 18" deep 40" cabinets with 15" additional wall cabinets on top. There is no counter-space under these wall cabinets.
* We are also adding interior cabinet lighting, and under-cabinet lighting of the two wall cabinets that have a workable surface (next to oven, and the small area next to the friend).
* We have not decided on what kind of island to build. But notice the large open area lacking lighting. I will use the existing circuit and cap it off for now until we decide on what decorative lighting to add here.

In summary, our concerns are:

* The spacing of these 6" lights seem very close together for how larger they are, at 4 feet apart.
* Also, we spaced them at 42" from the walls as 36" seemed to put them too far apart and 48" put them too close together IMO.
* Option 1 does not keep the "evenly spaced" methodology in the kitchen. But since moving the lights to 24" from the wall, over the countertops, I don't see any other way then to break away from that tradition.
* Rafters get in the way of starting out the lighting locations in the dining room, putting them at 36" from the left-most wall - which causes the concerns with Option 2.
* Option 2 seems more evenly spaced with the windows, view walking around (we have example tape disks up there now to see what it looks like), etc but it seems to be lacking some light in some areas.
* Your statements that these LED 850 lumen disk types aren't enough light - after we've already bought them. Hence, the 4 foot spacing to make up for it.

Lastly, I've experimented with 6 foot spacing; but, it does't work out in the kitchen. So it would be something like 6 foot in the dining room, but 4' spacing in kitchen. The spacing was a mess with that setup. But, would that be ok?

Ok... Maybe not so short. Thank you for your time!

Eric, apologies, I only now 9 months later saw this inquiry, and it's probably too late to be of any help.
I abhor thin disk LED's they are NOT downlights, they are miniature surface lights with wide and glaring beam spreads, and add negligible useable light (foot candles) at the work surface. And I almost never use 6 inch cans in ceilings under 10 feet. Note: you do NOT have to space cans evenly; I suggest putting cans precisely where you need them. Check out this month's (February 2022) lighting article, 3 Steps to Better Kitchen Lighting, for a good case study. Thanks

Having installed or altered recessed lighting in 14+ kitchens over time, here are a few thoughts to add, some of which have changed in my eyes, as my eyes have aged, as all eyes will do.

Lets start with the basic IF...

IF..... basic lighting is limited to single recessed lights over each task area in a kitchen, I completely agree with the 24" out from the wall rule where upper cabinets "rule" and one wants in -drawer lighting as well.

Islands aside, in task locations without upper cabinets, lamp placement between 12" and 24"from the wall may even be preferred. Direct centering of a light over a kitchen sink, for instance, well back from any hunched cook's shadow, works well.... yet not back so far that the descending light bounces off the stainless sink, up and into the scrub's eyes. That's just Annoying....with a capital A.

The next IF level.......

IF opportunity exists to install more pots, here is the combination of rules that I have developed over time.

Rule 1)
Place pots to either side of each workstation surface rather than directly above each.
This placement provides even light in front of the cook by having each of two lights cancel the other's shadow. The resulting light is balanced and even on the work surface leaving nothing to be desired.
Rule 2)
I and my (soon to be your) aging eyes prioritize "even lighting" over "maximizing lumens on a target".
Life in the shadows pales as time progresses so ditch those shadows before you wish you had.
Moreover, patience for adjusting or adding light and/or flipping umpteen switches dwindles with time. Trust me.
Don't read that as, I'm a one switch pony, as there are more switches and lighting options in our home than there are in The Louvre....but.....the right and immediate light is THE fix....for every situation.

As I was saying.....
Rule 2)
If the recessed lighting is your "go to light" in the kitchen and you don't like living in the shadows, the 24" from wall rule may drive you into them... the shadows so to speak. Your work surface is seldom the first 18" of your 25 " counter surface......
24" lamp placement equates to about 6" of unlit counter in the shadow of your upper cabinets.
Under cabinet lighting (UCL) is an excellent fix, but simplify your life. Rid the counter of shadows by shifting pot lights out the few inches needed to have only the backslash linger in the shadows. Potlights to either side of each task area (rule 1) light your counter immediately without side to side shadows, shifting potlights out a few inches to 30 or so may reduce lumens but will provide even light front to back.
As need arises flip the UCL switch but don't be a slave to every light in the house to achieve the task at hand.
Light as needed, evenly and generally first, then HIGHLIGHT with your under cabinet lighting.
Rule 3)
Experiment with spot vs flood lights and buy what suits your needs in your workspace. The chopping/slicing and dicing work surface is the ER department, if kitchens are likened to a medical facility and needs maximum attention. Your coffee center, If you have one and live the dream, is as free to represent you are you wish.
Some prefer coffee in the dark.
There is no one rule.

Rick: Thank you for writing in; it's nice to meet another lighting "nerd" like myself!
First point of agreement; not limiting lighting to recessed cans; I couldn't agree more. In my classes I teach layers of light, ambient, task, accent, and decorative. A kitchen should have at least three types; cans for the task illumination, undercabinet lights to illuminate the dark shadows under the upper cabinets, some sort of decorative/ambient fixtures, like pendants, for overall illumination. And in the past couple years we have another lighting type available, the in cabinet lighting offered by Haefele or Tresco.

Second point of agreement: placing the cans at the sink closer to the wall, like 12" instead of 24" to compensate for the leaning over tasks that take place there. As to lights on either side, instead of overhead; the sink is the only spot where we know the cook will be; along the counter it's user preference, and they can slide the task under or in between lights to suit their need

I mostly agree with your caution about aging eyes, but I don't think you get to play the age card with me. I just celebrated my 75th birthday two weeks ago! The prescription for aging eyes (with thicker, yellower lenses) is MORE light and LESS glare. You bring up a good point: indirect is perhaps the best light of all for aging eyes, as one cannot see the source, and it's diffuse. But I don't think one could achieve the requisite 100 foot candles with indirect alone. Two of my recent senior clients, when I mocked up lighting for them, were most comfortable with 125-175 foot candles!! But whatever you install, put it on dimmers.

Which brings up one of your other points; switch confusion. Anything more than four switches is too much to remember, and will lead to wasted time trying every switch to find the one you want. I had a client with 8 switches, and was able to talk them into a simple lighting control system, where the actual dimmer switches were in their pantry, feeding a single switch box on the wall. This switch box has 5 switches, from dim to brightest to off; they are preset scenes that the owner and electrician can set up. It's very intuitive and easy to use.

Lastly, I disagree about R floods over PAR narrow floods or spots; Anything much over 40 degree beam spread is going to glare into someone's eyes, and much of the lumens are wasted high up in the room. I've shown PAR's to deliver 10 to 20 times the useable illumination at the work surface than BR's. And finally, I agree again that "there is no one rule"; you need to find out what works for YOU, and the only way to really do that is to experiment, on your own and on your clients. I guarantee that some of the 500 kitchens I've designed in my earlier years did NOT meet my criteria for good lighting, and I'm trying to make up for it by writing these articles. Speaking of which, did you see this month's (Feb 2022 Pro Remodeler ) article, "Better Lighting in 3 Steps"? Let me know what you think, and thanks for writing in.

Very informative article as I plan my kitchen remodel. I know I'm a little late, but here is my question... We cook a lot and want excellent task lighting. But I don't want it to feel like a dr's office. Can you comment on the color of the lights and the feel to get both form and function?
Thanks!

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